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Title: The Chinese Classics
       Volume One: Confucian Analects

Author: James Legge

Release Date: May, 2003 [Etext #4094]
[The actual date this file first posted = 11/25/01]
[Most recently updated August 27, 2004]

Edition: 10

Language: Chinese and English

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The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Chinese Classics 
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with a translation, critical and exegetical
notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes


James Legge





【一節】子曰、 學而時習之、不亦說乎。【二節】有朋自遠方來、不亦樂
        CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, 'Is it not pleasant to learn 
with a constant perseverance and application?
        2. 'Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant 
        3. 'Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no 
discomposure though men may take no note of him?'

        CHAP. II. 1. The philosopher Yu said, 'They are few who, 
being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their 
superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend 
against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
        2. 'The superior man bends his attention to what is 

That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. 
Filial piety and fraternal submission!-- are they not the root of 
all benevolent actions?'
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'Fine words and an 
insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.'
        CHAP. IV. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I daily examine 
myself on three points:-- whether, in transacting business for 
others, I may have been not faithful;-- whether, in intercourse 
with friends, I may have been not sincere;-- whether I may 
have not mastered and practised the instructions of my 

        CHAP. V. The Master said, To rule a country of a thousand 
chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and 
sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the 
employment of the people at the proper seasons.'
        CHAP. VI. The Master said, 'A youth, when at home, 
should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should 
be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and 
cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and 
opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should 
employ them in polite studies.'
        CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, 'If a man withdraws his mind 
from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love 
of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his 
utmost strength;

if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his 
intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-- although 
men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he 
        CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, 'If the scholar be not 
grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning 
will not be solid.
        2. 'Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
        3. 'Have no friends not equal to yourself.
        4. 'When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.'
        CHAP. IX. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Let there be a 
careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let 
them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of 
sacrifice;-- then the virtue of the people will resume its proper 

CHAP. X. 1. Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, 'When our 
master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about 
its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to 
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'Our master is benign, upright, 
courteous, temperate, and complaisant, and thus he gets his 
information. The master's mode of asking information!-- is it 
not different from that of other men?'
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'While a man's father is alive, 
look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his 
conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of 
his father, he may be called filial.'

CHAP. XII. 1. The philosopher Yu said, 'In practising the rules of 
propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed 
by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things 
small and great we follow them.
        2. 'Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing 
how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without 
regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be 
        CHAP. XIII. The philosopher Yu said, 'When agreements 
are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be 
made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, 
one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon 
whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he 
can make them his guides and masters.'
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'He who aims to be a man of 
complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his 
appetite, nor

in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is 
earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he 
frequents the company of men of principle that he may be 
rectified:-- such a person may be said indeed to love to learn.'
        CHAP. XV. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'What do you pronounce 
concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich 
man who is not proud?' The Master replied, 'They will do; but 
they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, 
and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety.'
        2. Tsze-kung replied, 'It is said in the Book of Poetry, "As 
you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish."-- The 
meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just 
        3. The Master said, 'With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to 

about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper 
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'I will not be afflicted at 
men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know 


        CHAP. I. The Master said, 'He who exercises government 
by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar 
star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.'

        CHAP. II. The Master said, 'In the Book of Poetry are 
three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be 
embraced in one sentence-- "Having no depraved thoughts."'
        CHAP. III. 1. The Master said, 'If the people be led by 
laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, 
they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of 
        2. 'If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be 
given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense 
of shame, and moreover will become good.'
        CHAP. IV. 1. The Master said, 'At fifteen, I had my mind 
bent on learning.
        2. 'At thirty, I stood firm.
        3. 'At forty, I had no doubts.
        4. 'At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

        5. 'At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the 
reception of truth.
        6. 'At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, 
without transgressing what was right.'
        CHAP. V. 1. Mang I asked what filial piety was. The 
Master said, 'It is not being disobedient.'
        2. Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master 
told him, saying, 'Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and 
I answered him,-- "not being disobedient."'
        3. Fan Ch'ih said, 'What did you mean?' The Master 
replied, 'That parents, when alive, be served according to 
propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to 
propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to 

        CHAP. VI. Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The 
Master said, 'Parents are anxious lest their children should be 
        CHAP. VII. Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The 
Master said, 'The filial piety of now-a-days means the support 
of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do 
something in the way of support;-- without reverence, what is 
there to distinguish the one support given from the other?'
        CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The 
Master said, 'The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when 
their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the 
toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they 
set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial 

        CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'I have talked with Hui for a 
whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I 
said;-- as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have 
examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able 
to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-- He is not stupid.'
        CHAP. X. 1. The Master said, 'See what a man does.
        2. 'Mark his motives.
        3. 'Examine in what things he rests.
        4. 'How can a man conceal his character?
        5. How can a man conceal his character?'
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'If a man keeps cherishing his 
old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may 
be a teacher of others.'

        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'The accomplished scholar is 
not a utensil.'
        CHAP. XIII. Tsze-kung asked what constituted the 
superior man. The Master said, 'He acts before he speaks, and 
afterwards speaks according to his actions.'
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'The superior man is catholic 
and no partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Learning without thought is 
labour lost; thought without learning is perilous.'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The study of strange 
doctrines is injurious indeed!'

        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Yu, shall I teach you what 
knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know 
it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not 
know it;-- this is knowledge.'
        CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-chang was learning with a view to 
official emolument.
        2. The Master said, 'Hear much and put aside the points 
of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the 
same time of the others:-- then you will afford few occasions 
for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem 
perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying 
the others into practice:-- then you will have few occasions for 
repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his 
words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in 
the way to get emolument.'

        CHAP. XIX. The Duke Ai asked, saying, 'What should be 
done in order to secure the submission of the people?' 
Confucius replied, 'Advance the upright and set aside the 
crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and 
set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.'
        CHAP. XX. Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to 
reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to 
nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, 'Let him preside 
over them with gravity;-- then they will reverence him. Let 
him be filial and kind to all;-- then they will be faithful to him. 
Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-- then 
they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.'
        CHAP. XXI. 1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, 'Sir, 
why are you not engaged in the government?'

        2. The Master said, 'What does the Shu-ching say of filial 
piety?-- "You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. 
These qualities are displayed in government." This then also 
constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be 
THAT-- making one be in the government?'
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'I do not know how a man 
without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be 
made to go without the cross-bar for yoking the oxen to, or a 
small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?'
        CHAP. XXIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of 
ten ages after could be known.
        2. Confucius said, 'The Yin dynasty followed the 
regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them 
may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations 
of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. 
Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the 
distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known.'

        CHAP. XXIV. 1. The Master said, 'For a man to sacrifice to 
a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.
        2. 'To see what is right and not to do it is want of 


        CHAP. I. Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who 
had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, 'If he can bear to do 
this, what may he not bear to do?'

        CHAP. II. The three families used the YUNG ode, while the 
vessels were being removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice. 
The Master said, '"Assisting are the princes;-- the son of heaven 
looks profound and grave:"-- what application can these words 
have in the hall of the three families?'
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'If a man be without the 
virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with the rites of 
propriety? If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, 
what has he to do with music?'
        CHAP. IV. 1. Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be 
attended to in ceremonies.
        2. The Master said, 'A great question indeed!
        3. 'In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than 

In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep 
sorrow than a minute attention to observances.'
        CHAP. V. The Master said, 'The rude tribes of the east and 
north have their princes, and are not like the States of our 
great land which are without them.'
        CHAP. VI. The chief of the Chi family was about to 
sacrifice to the T'ai mountain. The Master said to Zan Yu, 'Can 
you not save him from this?' He answered, 'I cannot.' Confucius 
said, 'Alas! will you say that the T'ai mountain is not so 
discerning as Lin Fang?'

        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'The student of virtue has no 
contentions. If it be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in 
archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he 
ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In 
his contention, he is still the Chun-tsze.'
        CHAP. VIII. 1. Tsze-hsia asked, saying, 'What is the 
meaning of the passage-- "The pretty dimples of her artful 
smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain 
ground for the colours?"'
        2. The Master said, 'The business of laying on the colours 
follows (the preparation of) the plain ground.'
        3. 'Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?' The Master 
said, 'It is Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can 
begin to talk about the odes with him.'

        CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'I could describe the 
ceremonies of the Hsia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently 
attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin 
dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. (They 
cannot do so) because of the insufficiency of their records and 
wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in 
support of my words.'
        CHAP. X. The Master said, 'At the great sacrifice, after the 
pouring out of the libation, I have no wish to look on.'
        CHAP. XI. Some one asked the meaning of the great 
sacrifice. The Master said, 'I do not know. He who knew its 
meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look 
on this;-- pointing to his palm.

【一節】王孫賈問曰、與其媚於奧、寧媚於(zao4 上穴,中土,下黽)、何
        CHAP. XII. 1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were 
present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were 
        2. The Master said, 'I consider my not being present at 
the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice.'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, 'What is the 
meaning of the saying, "It is better to pay court to the furnace 
than to the south-west corner?"'
        2. The Master said, 'Not so. He who offends against 
Heaven has none to whom he can pray.'

        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'Chau had the advantage of 
viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are 
its regulations! I follow Chau.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master, when he entered the grand 
temple, asked about everything. Some one said, 'Who will say 
that the son of the man of Tsau knows the rules of propriety! 
He has entered the grand temple and asks about everything.' 
The Master heard the remark, and said, 'This is a rule of 
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'In archery it is not going 
through the leather which is the principal thing;-- because 
people's strength is not equal. This was the old way.'

        CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the 
offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first 
day of each month.
        2. The Master said, 'Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the 
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'The full observance of the 
rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by 
people to be flattery.'
        CHAP. XIX. The Duke Ting asked how a prince should 
employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their 
prince. Confucius replied, 'A prince should employ his minister 
according to according to the rules of propriety; ministers 
should serve their prince with faithfulness.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'The Kwan Tsu is expressive of 
enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being 
hurtfully excessive.'

        CHAP. XXI. 1. The Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altars 
of the spirits of the land. Tsai Wo replied, 'The Hsia sovereign 
planted the pine tree about them; the men of the Yin planted 
the cypress; and the men of the Chau planted the chestnut tree, 
meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe.'
        2. When the Master heard it, he said, 'Things that are 
done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their 
course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, 
it is needless to blame.'
        CHAP. XXII. 1. The Master said, 'Small indeed was the 
capacity of Kwan Chung!'
        2. Some one said, 'Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?' 
'Kwan,' was the reply, 'had the San Kwei, and his officers 
performed no double duties; how can he be considered 
        3. 'Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?' 

Master said, 'The princes of States have a screen intercepting 
the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. 
The princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of 
them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan 
had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety, 
who does not know them?'
        CHAP. XXXII. The Master instructing the grand music-
master of Lu said, 'How to play music may be known. At the 
commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound 
together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony while 
severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the 

        CHAP. XXIV. The border warden at Yi requested to be 
introduced to the Master, saying, 'When men of superior virtue 
have come to this, I have never been denied the privilege of 
seeing them.' The followers of the sage introduced him, and 
when he came out from the interview, he said, 'My friends, 
why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The 
kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and 
right; Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its 
wooden tongue.'
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said of the Shao that it was 
perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good. He said of the Wu 
that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good.
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'High station filled without 
indulgent generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence; 
mourning conducted without sorrow;-- wherewith should I 
contemplate such ways?'



        CHAP. I. The Master said, 'It is virtuous manners which 
constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in 
selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how 
can he be wise?'
        CHAP. II. The Master said, 'Those who are without virtue 
cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, 
or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the 
wise desire virtue.'

        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'It is only the (truly) virtuous 
man, who can love, or who can hate, others.'
        CHAP. IV. The Master said, 'If the will be set on virtue, 
there will be no practice of wickedness.'
        CHAP. V. 1. The Master said, 'Riches and honours are 
what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, 
they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men 
dislike. If it cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should 
not be avoided.
        2. 'If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfil 
the requirements of that name?
        3. 'The superior man does not, even for the space of a 
single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he 
cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it.'

        CHAP. VI. 1. The Master said, 'I have not seen a person 
who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He 
who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated 
what is not virtuous, would practise virtue in such a way that 
he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach 
his person.
        2. 'Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to 
virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be 
        3. 'Should there possibly be any such case, I have not 
seen it.'
        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'The faults of men are 
characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a 
man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous.'

        CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'If a man in the morning 
hear the right way, he may die in the evening without regret.'
        CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'A scholar, whose mind is set 
on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is 
not fit to be discoursed with.'
        CHAP. X. The Master said, 'The superior man, in the 
world, does not set his mind either for anything, or against 
anything; what is right he will follow.'
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'The superior man thinks of 
virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man 
thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favours 
which he may receive.'

        CHAP. XII. The Master said: 'He who acts with a constant 
view to his own advantage will be much murmured against.'
        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Is a prince is able to govern 
his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of 
propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it 
with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of 
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'A man should say, I am not 
concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit 
myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek 
to be worthy to be known.'
        CHAP. XV. 1. The Master said, 'Shan, my doctrine is that 
of an all-pervading unity.' The disciple Tsang replied, 'Yes.'
        2. The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, 

'What do his words mean?' Tsang said, 'The doctrine of our 
master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the 
benevolent exercise of them to others,-- this and nothing more.'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The mind of the superior 
man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean 
man is conversant with gain.'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'When we see men of worth, 
we should think of equalling them; when we see men of a 
contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine 
        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'In serving his parents, a 
son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that 
they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased 
degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and 
should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur.'

        CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'While his parents are alive, 
the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, 
he must have a fixed place to which he goes.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'If the son for three years 
does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called 
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'The years of parents may by 
no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for 
joy and for fear.'
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'The reason why the 
ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that 
they feared lest their actions should not come up to them.'
        CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'The cautious seldom err.'

        CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'The superior man wishes 
to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct.'
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Virtue is not left to stand 
alone. He who practises it will have neighbors.'
        CHAP. XXVI. Tsze-yu said, 'In serving a prince, frequent 
remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent 
reproofs make the friendship distant.'


        CHAP. I. 1. The Master said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he 
might be wived; although he was put in bonds, he had not been 
guilty of any crime. Accordingly, he gave him his own daughter 
to wife.
        2. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well 

he would not be out of office, and if it were ill-governed, he 
would escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the 
daughter of his own elder brother to wife.
        CHAP. II. The Master said of Tsze-chien, 'Of superior 
virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in 
Lu, how could this man have acquired this character?'
        CHAP. III. Tsze-kung asked, 'What do you say of me, 
Ts'ze? The Master said, 'You are a utensil.' 'What utensil?' 'A 
gemmed sacrificial utensil.'

        CHAP. IV. 1. Some one said, 'Yung is truly virtuous, but he 
is not ready with his tongue.'
        2. The Master said, 'What is the good of being ready with 
the tongue? They who encounter men with smartnesses of 
speech for the most part procure themselves hatred. I know 
not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he show 
readiness of the tongue?'
        CHAP. V. The Master was wishing Ch'i-tiao K'ai to enter 
on official employment. He replied, 'I am not yet able to rest in 
the assurance of THIS.' The Master was pleased.
        CHAP. VI. The Master said, 'My doctrines make no way. I 
will get upon a raft, and float about on the sea. He that will 
accompany me will be Yu, I dare say.' Tsze-lu hearing this was 

upon which the Master said, 'Yu is fonder of daring than I am. 
He does not exercise his judgment upon matters.'
        CHAP. VII. 1. Mang Wu asked about Tsze-lu, whether he 
was perfectly virtuous. The Master said, 'I do not know.'
        2. He asked again, when the Master replied, 'In a 
kingdom of a thousand chariots, Yu might be employed to 
manage the military levies, but I do not know whether he be 
perfectly virtuous.'
        3. 'And what do you say of Ch'iu?' The Master replied, 'In 
a city of a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots, 
Ch'iu might be employed as governor, but I do not know 
whether he is perfectly virtuous.'
        4. 'What do you say of Ch'ih?' The Master replied, 'With 
his sash girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed 
to converse with the visitors and guests, but I do not know 
whether he is perfectly virtuous.'

        CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said to Tsze-kung, 'Which do 
you consider superior, yourself or Hui?'
        2. Tsze-kung replied, 'How dare I compare myself with 
Hui? Hui hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear 
one point, and know a second.'
        3. The Master said, 'You are not equal to him. I grant you, 
you are not equal to him.'
        CHAP. IX. 1. Tsai Yu being asleep during the daytime, the 
Master said, 'Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty 
earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu!-- what is the use of 
my reproving him?'
        2. The Master said, 'At first, my way with men was to 
hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now 
my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is 
from Yu that I have learned to make this change.'

        CHAP. X. The Master said, 'I have not seen a firm and 
unbending man.' Some one replied, 'There is Shan Ch'ang.' 
'Ch'ang,' said the Master, 'is under the influence of his passions; 
how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?'
        CHAP. XI. Tsze-kung said, 'What I do not wish men to do 
to me, I also wish not to do to men.' The Master said, 'Ts'ze, you 
have not attained to that.'
        CHAP. XII. Tsze-kung said, 'The Master's personal 
displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them 
may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way 
of Heaven, cannot be heard.'

        CHAP. XIII. When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not 
yet succeeded in carrying it into practice, he was only afraid 
lest he should hear something else.
        CHAP. XIV. Tsze-kung asked, saying, 'On what ground did 
Kung-wan get that title of Wan?' The Master said, 'He was of an 
active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed 
to ask and learn of his inferiors!-- On these grounds he has 
been styled Wan.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four 
of the characteristics of a superior man:-- in his conduct of 
himself, he was humble; in serving his superiors, he was 
respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering 
the people, he was just.'

        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Yen P'ing knew well how to 
maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, 
but he showed the same respect as at first.'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Tsang Wan kept a large 
tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he 
had hills made, and with representations of duckweed on the 
small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters.-- Of what 
sort was his wisdom?'
        CHAP. XVIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked, saying, 'The minister 
Tsze-wan thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his 
countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no 
displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of 
the way in which he had conducted the government;-- what do 
you say of him?' The Master replied. 'He was loyal.' 'Was he 
perfectly virtuous?' 'I do not know. How can he be pronounced 
perfectly virtuous?'

        2. Tsze-chang proceeded, 'When the officer Ch'ui killed 
the prince of Ch'i, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty 
horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to 
another State, he said, "They are here like our great officer, 
Ch'ui," and left it. He came to a second State, and with the same 
observation left it also;-- what do you say of him?' The Master 
replied, 'He was pure.' 'Was he perfectly virtuous?' 'I do not 
know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?'
        CHAP. XIX. Chi Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When 
the Master was informed of it, he said, 'Twice may do.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'When good order prevailed in 
his country, Ning Wu acted the part of a wise man. When his 
country was in disorder, he acted the part of a stupid man. 
Others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his 

        CHAP. XXI. When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, 'Let 
me return! Let me return! The little children of my school are 
ambitious and too hasty. They are accomplished and complete 
so far, but they do not know how to restrict and shape 
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not 
keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the 
resentments directed towards them were few.'
        CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'Who says of Wei-shang 

that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him, and he 
begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man.'
        CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'Fine words, an insinuating 
appearance, and excessive respect;-- Tso Ch'iu-ming was 
ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of them. To conceal 
resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;-- 
Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am 
ashamed of it.'
        CHAP. XXV. 1. Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, the 
Master said to them, 'Come, let each of you tell his wishes.'
        2. Tsze-lu said, 'I should like, having chariots and horses, 
and light fur dresses, to share them with my friends, and 
though they should spoil them, I would not be displeased.'
        3. Yen Yuan said, 'I should like not to boast of my 
excellence, nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds.'

        4. Tsze-lu then said, 'I should like, sir, to hear your 
wishes.' The Master said, 'They are, in regard to the aged, to 
give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in 
regard to the young, to treat them tenderly.'
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'It is all over! I have not 
yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly 
accuse himself.'
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'In a hamlet of ten 
families, there may be found one honourable and sincere as I 
am, but not so fond of learning.'


        CHAP. I. 1. The Master said, 'There is Yung!-- He might 
occupy the place of a prince.'
        2. Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master 
said, 'He may pass. He does not mind small matters.'
        3. Chung-kung said, 'If a man cherish in himself a 
reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business, 
though he may be easy in small matters in his government of 
the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself 
that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not 
such an easy mode of procedure excessive?'
        4. The Master said, 'Yung's words are right.'

        CHAP. II. The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved 
to learn. Confucius replied to him, 'There was Yen Hui; HE loved 
to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. 
Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and 
now there is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one 
who loves to learn as he did.'
        CHAP. III. 1. Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to 
Ch'i, the disciple Zan requested grain for his mother. The 
Master said, 'Give her a fu.' Yen requested more. 'Give her an 
yu,' said the Master. Yen gave her five ping.
        2. The Master said, 'When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'i, he 
had fat horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard 

a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the 
wealth of the rich.'
        3. Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the 
Master, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze 
declined them.
        4.  The Master said, 'Do not decline them. May you not 
give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and 
        CHAP. IV. The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, 'If 
the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, although men 
may not wish to use it, would the spirits of the mountains and 
rivers put it aside?'
        CHAP. V. The Master said, 'Such was Hui that for three 
months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect 
virtue. The others may attain to this on some days or in some 
months, but nothing more.'

        CHAP. VI. Chi K'ang asked about Chung-yu, whether he 
was fit to be employed as an officer of government. The Master 
said, 'Yu is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in 
being an officer of government?' K'ang asked, 'Is Ts'ze fit to be 
employed as an officer of government?' and was answered, 
'Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what difficulty would he find in 
being an officer of government?' And to the same question 
about Ch'iu the Master gave the same reply, saying, 'Ch'iu is a 
man of various ability.'
        CHAP. VII. The chief of the Chi family sent to ask Min 
Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pi. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, 'Decline 
the offer for me politely. If any one come again to me with a 
second invitation, I shall be obliged to go and live on the banks 
of the Wan.'

        CHAP. VIII. Po-niu being ill, the Master went to ask for 
him. He took hold of his hand through the window, and said, 'It 
is killing him. It is the appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a 
man should have such a sickness! That such a man should have 
such a sickness!'
                CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'Admirable indeed was 
the virtue of Hui! With a single bamboo dish of rice, a single 
gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean narrow lane, while 
others could not have endured the distress, he did not allow his 
joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was the virtue of 
        CHAP. X. Yen Ch'iu said, 'It is not that I do not delight in 
your doctrines, but my strength is insufficient.' The Master 
said, 'Those whose strength is insufficient give over in the 
middle of the way but now you limit yourself.'

        CHAP. XI. The Master said to Tsze-hsia, 'Do you be a 
scholar after the style of the superior man, and not after that of 
the mean man.'
        CHAP. XII. Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, the 
Master said to him, 'Have you got good men there?' He 
answered, 'There is Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming, who never in walking 
takes a short cut, and never comes to my office, excepting on 
public business.'
        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Mang Chih-fan does not 
boast of his merit. Being in the rear on an occasion of flight, 
when they were about to enter the gate, he whipped up his 
horse, saying, "It is not that I dare to be last. My horse would 
not advance."'

        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'Without the specious speech 
of the litanist T'o and the beauty of the prince Chao of Sung, it 
is difficult to escape in the present age.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Who can go out but by the 
door? How is it that men will not walk according to these 
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Where the solid qualities are 
in excess of accomplishments, we have rusticity; where the 
accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities, we have 
the manners of a clerk. When the accomplishments and solid 
qualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue.'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Man is born for 
uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness, and yet live, his 
escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune.'

        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'They who know the truth 
are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not 
equal to those who delight in it.'
        CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'To those whose talents are 
above mediocrity, the highest subjects may be announced. To 
those who are below mediocrity, the highest subjects may not 
be announced.'
        CHAP. XX. Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The 
Master said, 'To give one's self earnestly to the duties due to 
men, and, while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from 
them, may be called wisdom.' He asked about perfect virtue. 
The Master said, 'The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be 
overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent 
consideration;-- this may be called perfect virtue.'

        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'The wise find pleasure in 
water; the virtuous find pleasure in hills. The wise are active; 
the virtuous are tranquil. The wise are joyful; the virtuous are 
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Ch'i, by one change, would 
come to the State of Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a 
State where true principles predominated.'
        CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'A cornered vessel without 
corners.-- A strange cornered vessel! A strange cornered 
        CHAP. XXIV. Tsai Wo asked, saying, 'A benevolent man, 
though it be told him,-- 'There is a man in the well' will go in 
after him, I suppose.' Confucius said, 'Why should he do so?' A 

man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to 
go down into it. He may be imposed upon, but he cannot be 
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'The superior man, 
extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under 
the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not 
overstep what is right.'
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu 
was displeased, on which the Master swore, saying, 'Wherein I 
have done improperly, may Heaven reject me, may Heaven 
reject me!'
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'Perfect is the virtue which 

according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been 
its practise among the people.'
        CHAP. XXVIII. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'Suppose the case of a 
man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to 
assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called 
perfectly virtuous?' The Master said, 'Why speak only of virtue 
in connexion with him? Must he not have the qualities of a 
sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.
        2. 'Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be 
established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to 
be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.
        3. 'To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in 
ourselves;-- this may be called the art of virtue.'


        CHAP. I. The Master said, 'A transmitter and not a maker, 
believing in and loving the ancients, I venture to compare 
myself with our old P'ang.'
        CHAP. II. The Master said, 'The silent treasuring up of 
knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others 
without being wearied:-- which one of these things belongs to 
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'The leaving virtue without 
proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is 
learned; not being able to move towards righteousness of which 
a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not 
good:-- these are the things which occasion me solicitude.'

        CHAP. IV. When the Master was unoccupied with 
business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleased.
        CHAP. V. The Master said, 'Extreme is my decay. For a 
long time, I have not dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw 
the duke of Chau.'
        CHAP. VI. 1. The Master said, 'Let the will be set on the 
path of duty.
        2. 'Let every attainment in what is good be firmly 
        3. 'Let perfect virtue be accorded with.
        4. 'Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite 

        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'From the man bringing his 
bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I have never 
refused instruction to any one.'
        CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'I do not open up the truth 
to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one 
who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented 
one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn 
the other three, I do not repeat my lesson.'
        CHAP. IX. 1. When the Master was eating by the side of a 
mourner, he never ate to the full.
        2. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been 
        CHAP. X. 1. The Master said to Yen Yuan, 'When called to 
office, to undertake its duties; when not so called, to lie 
retired;-- it is only I and you who have attained to this.'

        2. Tsze-lu said, 'If you had the conduct of the armies of a 
great State, whom would you have to act with you?'
        3. The Master said, 'I would not have him to act with me, 
who will unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a 
boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be the man 
who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fond of 
adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution.'
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'If the search for riches is sure 
to be successful, though I should become a groom with whip in 
hand to get them, I will do so. As the search may not be 
successful, I will follow after that which I love.'
        CHAP. XII. The things in reference to which the Master 
exercised the greatest caution were -- fasting, war, and 

        CHAP. XIII. When the Master was in Ch'i, he heard the 
Shao, and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. 'I 
did not think'' he said, 'that music could have been made so 
excellent as this.'
        CHAP. XIV. 1. Yen Yu said, 'Is our Master for the ruler of 
Wei?' Tsze-kung said, 'Oh! I will ask him.'
        2. He went in accordingly, and said, 'What sort of men 
were Po-i and Shu-ch'i?' 'They were ancient worthies,' said the 
Master. 'Did they have any repinings because of their course?' 
The Master again replied, 'They sought to act virtuously, and 
they did so; what was there for them to repine about?' On this, 
Tsze-kung went out and said, 'Our Master is not for him.'

        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'With coarse rice to eat, with 
water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow;-- I have still 
joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honours acquired 
by unrighteousness, are to me as a floating cloud.'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'If some years were added to 
my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yi, and then I 
might come to be without great faults.'
        CHAP. XVII The Master's frequent themes of discourse 
were-- the Odes, the History, and the maintenance of the Rules 
of Propriety. On all these he frequently discoursed.

        CHAP. XVIII. 1. The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lu about 
Confucius, and Tsze-lu did not answer him.
        2. The Master said, 'Why did you not say to him,-- He is 
simply a man, who in his eager pursuit (of knowledge) forgets 
his food, who in the joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows, 
and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?'
        CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'I am not one who was born 
in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of 
antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there.'
        CHAP. XX. The subjects on which the Master did not talk, 
were-- extraordinary things, feats of strength, disorder, and 
spiritual beings.

        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'When I walk along with two 
others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their 
good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid 
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Heaven produced the virtue 
that is in me. Hwan T'ui-- what can he do to me?'
        CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'Do you think, my disciples, 
that I have any concealments? I conceal nothing from you. 
There is nothing which I do that is not shown to you, my 
disciples;-- that is my way.'
        CHAP. XXIV. There were four things which the Master 
taught,-- letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and truthfulness.

        CHAP. XXV. 1. The Master said, 'A sage it is not mine to 
see; could I see a man of real talent and virtue, that would 
satisfy me.'
        2. The Master said, 'A good man it is not mine to see; 
could I see a man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy 
        3. 'Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet 
affecting to be full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-- 
it is difficult with such characteristics to have constancy.'
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master angled,-- but did not use a net. 
He shot,-- but not at birds perching.
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'There may be those who 
act without knowing why. I do not do so. Hearing much and 
selecting what is good and following it; seeing much and 
keeping it in memory:-- this is the second style of knowledge.'

        CHAP. XXVIII. 1. It was difficult to talk (profitably and 
reputably) with the people of Hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place 
having had an interview with the Master, the disciples 
        2. The Master said, 'I admit people's approach to me 
without committing myself as to what they may do when they 
have retired. Why must one be so severe? If a man purify 
himself to wait upon me, I receive him so purified, without 
guaranteeing his past conduct.'
        CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'Is virtue a thing remote? I 
wish to be virtuous, and lo! virtue is at hand.'
        CHAP. XXX. 1. The minister of crime of Ch'an asked 
whether the duke Chao knew propriety, and Confucius said, 'He 
knew propriety.'
        2. Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wu-
ma Ch'i

知禮、孰不知禮。【三節】 巫馬期以告。子曰、丘也幸、苟有過、人必知
to come forward, and said, 'I have heard that the superior man 
is not a partisan. May the superior man be a partisan also? The 
prince married a daughter of the house of Wu, of the same 
surname with himself, and called her,-- "The elder Tsze of Wu." 
If the prince knew propriety, who does not know it?'
        3. Wu-ma Ch'i reported these remarks, and the Master 
said, 'I am fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to 
know them.'
        CHAP. XXXI. When the Master was in company with a 
person who was singing, if he sang well, he would make him 
repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his own voice.
        CHAP. XXXII. The Master said, 'In letters I am perhaps 
equal to other men, but the character of the superior man, 
carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have 
not yet attained to.'

祗 。子曰、丘之禱久矣。
        CHAP. XXXIII. The Master said, 'The sage and the man of 
perfect virtue;-- how dare I rank myself with them? It may 
simply be said of me, that I strive to become such without 
satiety, and teach others without weariness.' Kung-hsi Hwa 
said, 'This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in.'
        CHAP. XXXIV. The Master being very sick, Tsze-lu asked 
leave to pray for him. He said, 'May such a thing be done?' 
Tsze-lu replied, 'It may. In the Eulogies it is said, "Prayer has 
been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower 
worlds."' The Master said, 'My praying has been for a long 

        CHAP. XXXV. The Master said, 'Extravagance leads to 
insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be 
mean than to be insubordinate.'
        CHAP. XXXVI. The Master said, 'The superior man is 
satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of 
        CHAP. XXXVII. The Master was mild, and yet dignified; 
majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy.


        CHAP. I. The Master said, 'T'ai-po may be said to have 
reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined 
the kingdom, and the people in ignorance of his motives could 
not express their approbation of his conduct.'

        CHAP. II. 1. The Master said, 'Respectfulness, without the 
rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, 
without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness, 
without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination; 
straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes 
        2. 'When those who are in high stations perform well all 
their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. 
When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are 
preserved from meanness.'
        CHAP. III. The philosopher Tsang being ill, he called to 
him the disciples of his school, and said, 'Uncover my feet, 
uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "We should 
be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf, 
as if treading on thin ice," and so have I been. Now and 
hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my person, O ye, 
my little children.'

        CHAP. IV. 1. The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang 
went to ask how he was.
        2. Tsang said to him, 'When a bird is about to die, its 
notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are 
        3. 'There are three principles of conduct which the man of 
high rank should consider specially important:-- that in his 
deportment and manner he keep from violence and 
heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near 
to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from 
lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to 
the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them.'

        CHAP. V. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Gifted with ability, 
and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed 
of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little; 
having, as though he had not; full, and yet counting himself as 
empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation; 
formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct.'
        CHAP. VI. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Suppose that there 
is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a 
young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority 
over a state of a hundred li, and whom no emergency however 
great can drive from his principles:-- is such a man a superior 
man? He is a superior man indeed.'
        CHAP. VII. 1. The philosopher Tsang said, 'The officer 
may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. 
His burden is heavy and his course is long.

        2. 'Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is 
his to sustain;-- is it not heavy? Only with death does his 
course stop;-- is it not long?
        CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, 'It is by the Odes that the 
mind is aroused.
        2. 'It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is 
        3. 'It is from Music that the finish is received.'
        CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'The people may be made to 
follow a path of action, but they may not be made to 
understand it.'
        CHAP. X. The Master said, 'The man who is fond of daring 
and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to 
insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you 
carry your dislike of him to an extreme.'

        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'Though a man have abilities 
as admirable as those of the Duke of Chau, yet if he be proud 
and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being 
looked at.'
        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'It is not easy to find a man 
who has learned for three years without coming to be good.'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. The Master said, 'With sincere faith he 
unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is 
perfecting the excellence of his course.
        2. 'Such an one will not enter a tottering State, nor dwell 
in a disorganized one. When right principles of government 
prevail in the kingdom, he will show himself; when they are 
prostrated, he will keep concealed.
        3. 'When a country is well-governed, poverty and a mean 
condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill-
governed, riches and honour are things to be ashamed of.'

        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'He who is not in any 
particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the 
administration of its duties.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'When the music master Chih 
first entered on his office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was 
magnificent;-- how it filled the ears!'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Ardent and yet not upright; 
stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere:-- such 
persons I do not understand.'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Learn as if you could not 
reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should 
lose it.'
        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'How majestic was the 
manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as 
if it were nothing to them!'

        CHAP. XIX. 1. The Master said, 'Great indeed was Yao as a 
sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is 
grand, and only Yao corresponded to it. How vast was his 
virtue! The people could find no name for it.
        2. 'How majestic was he in the works which he 
accomplished! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he 
        CHAP. XX. 1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was 
        2. King Wu said, 'I have ten able ministers.'
        3. Confucius said, 'Is not the saying that talents are 
difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu 
met, were they more abundant than in this of Chau, yet there 
was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more 
than nine men.

        4. 'King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the 
empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The 
virtue of the house of Chau may be said to have reached the 
highest point indeed.'
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'I can find no flaw in the 
character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but 
displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His 
ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost 
elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low mean 
house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water-
channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.'


        CHAP. I. The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke 
were-- profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven, 
and perfect virtue.
        CHAP. II. 1. A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, 'Great 
indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and 
yet he does not render his name famous by any particular 
        2. The Master heard the observation, and said to his 
disciples, 'What shall I practise? Shall I practise charioteering, 
or shall I practise archery? I will practise charioteering.'

        CHAP. III. 1. The Master said, 'The linen cap is that 
prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is 
worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice.
        2. 'The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the 
hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That 
is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose 
the common practice.'
        CHAP. IV. There were four things from which the Master 
was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary 
predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoism.
        CHAP. V. 1. The Master was put in fear in K'wang.
        2. He said, 'After the death of King Wan, was not the 
cause of truth lodged here in me?

        3. 'If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, 
then I, a future mortal, should not have got such a relation to 
that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, 
what can the people of K'wang do to me?'
        CHAP. VI. 1. A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, 'May 
we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his 
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'Certainly Heaven has endowed him 
unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is 
        3. The Master heard of the conversation and said, 'Does 
the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition 
was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things, 
but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such 
variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability.'
        4. Lao said, 'The Master said, "Having no official 
employment, I acquired many arts."'

        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'Am I indeed possessed of 
knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person, who 
appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth 
from one end to the other, and exhaust it.'
        CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'The FANG bird does not 
come; the river sends forth no map:-- it is all over with me!'
        CHAP. IX. When the Master saw a person in a mourning 
dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments 
of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching, 
though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and 
if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.

        CHAP. X. 1. Yen Yuan, in admiration of the Master's 
doctrines, sighed and said, 'I looked up to them, and they 
seemed to become more high; I tried to penetrate them, and 
they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me, 
and suddenly they seemed to be behind.
        2. 'The Master, by orderly method, skilfully leads men on. 
He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the 
restraints of propriety.
        3. 'When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I 
cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems 
something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to 
follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so.'
        CHAP. XI. 1. The Master being very ill, Tsze-lu wished the 
disciples to act as ministers to him.
        2. During a remission of his illness, he said, 'Long has the 
conduct of Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers 
when I have them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I 
impose upon Heaven?

【十二章】子貢曰、有美玉於斯、韞(du2 匚+賣、與「櫝」同)而藏諸、求
        3. 'Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of 
ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you, 
my disciples? And though I may not get a great burial, shall I 
die upon the road?'
        CHAP. XII. Tsze-kung said, 'There is a beautiful gem here. 
Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a 
good price and sell it?' The Master said, 'Sell it! Sell it! But I 
would wait for one to offer the price.'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. The Master was wishing to go and live 
among the nine wild tribes of the east.
        2. Some one said, 'They are rude. How can you do such a 
thing?' The Master said, 'If a superior man dwelt among them, 
what rudeness would there be?'
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'I returned from Wei to Lu, 
and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal 
songs and Praise songs all found their proper places.'

        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Abroad, to serve the high 
ministers and nobles; at home, to serve one's father and elder 
brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's 
self; and not to be overcome of wine:-- which one of these 
things do I attain to?'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master standing by a stream, said, 'It 
passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'I have not seen one who 
loves virtue as he loves beauty.'
        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'The prosecution of 
learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a 
mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the 
work, and I stop, the

stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing 
down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketful 
is thrown at a time, the advancing with it is my own going 
        CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'Never flagging when I set 
forth anything to him;-- ah! that is Hui.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said of Yen Yuan, 'Alas! I saw his 
constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress.'
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'There are cases in which the 
blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower! There are 
cases where it flowers, but no fruit is subsequently produced!'
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'A youth is to be regarded 
with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal 
to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not 
made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being 
regarded with respect.'

        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Can men refuse to assent to 
the words of strict admonition? But it is reforming the conduct 
because of them which is valuable. Can men refuse to be 
pleased with words of gentle advice? But it is unfolding their 
aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased with these words, 
but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those, but does 
not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him.'
        CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'Hold faithfulness and 
sincerity as first principles. Have no friends not equal to 
yourself. When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.'
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'The commander of the 
forces of a large state may be carried off, but the will of even a 
common man cannot be taken from him.'

        CHAP. XXVI. 1. The Master said, 'Dressed himself in a 
tattered robe quilted with hemp, yet standing by the side of 
men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-- ah! it is Yu who is 
equal to this!
        2. '"He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-- what can he do 
but what is good!"'
        3. Tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the 
ode, when the Master said, 'Those things are by no means 
sufficient to constitute (perfect) excellence.'
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'When the year becomes 
cold, then we know how the pine and the cypress are the last 
to lose their leaves.'
        CHAP. XXVIII. The Master said, 'The wise are free from 
perplexities; the virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear.'
        CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'There are some with whom 
we may study in common, but we shall find them unable to go 

with us to principles. Perhaps we may go on with them to 
principles, but we shall find them unable to get established in 
those along with us. Or if we may get so established along with 
them, we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events 
along with us.'
        CHAP. XXX. 1. How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter 
and turn! Do I not think of you? But your house is distant.
        2. The Master said, 'It is the want of thought about it. 
How is it distant?'


        CHAP. I. 1. Confucius, in his village, looked simple and 
sincere, and as if he were not able to speak.
        2. When he was in the prince's ancestorial temple, or in 
the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
        CHAP II. 1. When he was waiting at court, in speaking 
with the great officers of the lower grade, he spake freely, but 
in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the 
higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
        2. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed 
respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.

【第三章】【一節】 君召使擯、色勃如也、足躩如也。【二節】揖所與立、
        CHAP. III. 1. When the prince called him to employ him 
in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to 
change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.
        2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom 
he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position 
required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind 
evenly adjusted.
        3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a 
        4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the 
prince, 'The visitor is not turning round any more.'
        CHAP. IV. 1. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed 
to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.

        2. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of 
the gate-way; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon 
the threshold.
        3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, 
his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under 
him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter 
        4. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe 
with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath 
also, as if he dared not breathe.
        5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he 
had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and 
had a satisfied look. When he had got to the bottom of the 
steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like 
wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful 
        CHAP. V. 1. When he was carrying the scepter of his 
ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to 
bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of 
the hands in making

a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to 
another. His countenance seemed to change, and look 
apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were 
held by something to the ground.
        2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, 
he wore a placid appearance.
        3. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
        CHAP. VI. 1. The superior man did not use a deep purple, 
or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress.
        2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red 
or reddish colour.
        3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of 
coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner 
        4. Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over 
fawn's fur one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.

        5. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right 
sleeve short.
        6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again 
as his body.
        7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or 
the badger.
        8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages 
of the girdle.
        9. His under-garment, except when it was required to be 
of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and 
wide below.
        10. He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap, on a visit of 
        11. On the first day of the month he put on his court 
robes, and presented himself at court.

        CHAP. VII. 1. When fasting, he thought it necessary to 
have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.
        2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his 
food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in 
the apartment.
        CHAP. VIII. 1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely 
cleaned, nor to have his minced meat cut quite small.
        2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or 
damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did 
not eat what was discoloured, or what was of a bad flavour, nor 
anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
        3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor 
what was served without its proper sauce.
        4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he 
would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for 
the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for 
himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
        5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in 
the market.

        6. He was never without ginger when he ate.
        7. He did not eat much.
        8. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he 
did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh 
of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept 
over three days, people could not eat it.
        9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did 
not speak.
        10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable 
soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, 
respectful air.
        CHAP. IX. If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
        CHAP. X. 1. When the villagers were drinking together, on 
those who carried staffs going out, he went out immediately 
        2. When the villagers were going through their 
ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his 
court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

        CHAP. XI. 1. When he was sending complimentary 
inquiries to any one in another State, he bowed twice as he 
escorted the messenger away.
        2. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he 
bowed and received it, saying, 'I do not know it. I dare not 
taste it.'
        CHAP. XII. The stable being burned down, when he was 
at court, on his return he said, 'Has any man been hurt?' He did 
not ask about the horses.
        CHAP. XIII. 1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked 
meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it 
away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed 
meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his 
ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he 
would keep it alive.
        2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining 
in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted 

        3. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he 
had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over 
him, and drew his girdle across them.
        4. When the prince's order called him, without waiting for 
his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
        CHAP. XIV. When he entered the ancestral temple of the 
State, he asked about everything.
        CHAP. XV. 1. When any of his friends died, if he had no 
relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, 
he would say, 'I will bury him.'
        2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a 
carriage and horses, he did not bow.
        3. The only present for which he bowed was that of the 
flesh of sacrifice.
        CHAP. XVI. 1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At 
home, he did not put on any formal deportment.
        2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it 
might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when 
he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, 
though he might be in his undress, he would salute them in a 
ceremonious manner.

        3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the 
crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one 
bearing the tables of population.
        4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an 
abundance of provisions set before him, he would change 
countenance and rise up.
        5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he 
would change countenance.
        CHAP. XVII. 1. When he was about to mount his carriage, 
he would stand straight, holding the cord.
        2. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head 
quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his 
        CHAP. XVIII. 1. Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. 
It flies round, and by and by settles.
        2. The Master said, 'There is the hen-pheasant on the hill 
bridge. At its season! At its season!' Tsze-lu made a motion to 
it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.


        CHAP. I. 1. The Master said, 'The men of former times, in 
the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, 
while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, 
are accomplished gentlemen.
        2. 'If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men 
of former times.'
        CHAP. II. 1. The Master said, 'Of those who were with me 
in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there are none to be found to enter my door.'
        2. Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, 
there were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-
kung; for their ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for 
their adminis-

trative talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary 
acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'Hui gives me no assistance. 
There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight.'
        CHAP. IV. The Master said, 'Filial indeed is Min Tsze-
ch'ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the 
report of his parents and brothers.'
        CHAP. V. Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines 
about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter 
of his elder brother to wife.

【第七章】【一節】顏淵死、顏路請子之車、以為之(guo3 木+享、與槨
同)。【二節】子曰、才不才、亦各言其子也、鯉也死、有棺而無(guo3 木
+享、與槨同)、吾不徒行以為之(guo3 木+享、與槨同)、以吾從大夫之後、
        CHAP. VI. Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to 
learn. Confucius replied to him, 'There was Yen Hui; he loved to 
learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. 
Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did.'
        CHAP. VII. 1. When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the 
carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son's 
        2. The Master said, 'Every one calls his son his son, 
whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when 
he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on 
foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear 
of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on 
        CHAP. VIII. When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, 'Alas! 
Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!'

        CHAP. IX. 1. When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed 
him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, 
'Master, your grief is excessive?'
        2. 'Is it excessive?' said he.
        3. 'If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom 
should I mourn?'
        CHAP. X. 1. When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to 
give him a great funeral, and the Master said, 'You may not do 
        2. The disciples did bury him in great style.
        3. The Master said, 'Hui behaved towards me as his 
father. I have not been able to treat him as my son. The fault is 
not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples.'
        CHAP. XI. Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the 
dead. The Master said, 'While you are not able to serve men, 
how can you serve their spirits?' Chi Lu added, 'I venture to 
ask about

death?' He was answered, 'While you do not know life, how can 
you know about death?'
        CHAP. XII. 1. The disciple Min was standing by his side, 
looking bland and precise; Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; 
Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward manner. 
The Master was pleased.
        2. He said, 'Yu, there!-- he will not die a natural death.'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. Some parties in Lu were going to take 
down and rebuild the Long Treasury.
        2. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, 'Suppose it were to be repaired 
after its old style;-- why must it be altered and made anew?'
        3. The Master said, 'This man seldom speaks; when he 
does, he is sure to hit the point.'

        CHAP. XIV. 1. The Master said, 'What has the lute of Yu to 
do in my door?'
        2. The other disciples began not to respect Tsze-lu. The 
Master said, 'Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet 
passed into the inner apartments.'
        CHAP. XV. 1. Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or 
Shang, was the superior. The Master said, 'Shih goes beyond the 
due mean, and Shang does not come up to it.'
        2. 'Then,' said Tsze-kung, 'the superiority is with Shih, I 
        3. The Master said, 'To go beyond is as wrong as to fall 
        CHAP. XVI. 1. The head of the Chi family was richer than 
the duke of Chau had been, and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts 
for him, and increased his wealth.

        2. The Master said, 'He is no disciple of mine. My little 
children, beat the drum and assail him.'
        CHAP. XVII. 1. Ch'ai is simple.
        2. Shan is dull.
        3. Shih is specious.
        4. Yu is coarse.
        CHAP. XVIII. 1. The Master said, 'There is Hui! He has 
nearly attained to perfect virtue. He is often in want.
        2. 'Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of 
Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments 
are often correct.'
        CHAP. XIX. Tsze-chang asked what were the 
characteristics of

the GOOD man. The Master said, 'He does not tread in the 
footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the 
chamber of the sage.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'If, because a man's discourse 
appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he 
really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?'
        CHAP. XXI. Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately 
carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, 'There are 
your father and elder brothers to be consulted;-- why should 
you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice 
what you hear?' Zan Yu asked the same, whether he should 
immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master 
answered, 'Immediately carry into practice what you hear.' 
Kung-hsi Hwa said, 'Yu asked whether he should carry 
immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, "There 
are your father and elder brothers to be consulted." Ch'iu asked 
whether he should immediately carry into practice what he 
heard, and you said, "Carry it immediately into practice." I, 
Ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation.' 
The Master said, 'Ch'iu is retiring and slow; therefore,

I urged him forward. Yu has more than his own share of 
energy; therefore I kept him back.'
        CHAP. XXII. The Master was put in fear in K'wang and 
Yen Yuan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, 'I 
thought you had died.' Hui replied, 'While you were alive, how 
should I presume to die?'
        CHAP. XXIII. 1. Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and 
Zan Ch'iu could be called great ministers.
        2. The Master said, 'I thought you would ask about some 
extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch'iu!
        3. 'What is called a great minister, is one who serves his 
prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot 
do so, retires.

        4. 'Now, as to Yu and Ch'iu, they may be called ordinary 
        5. Tsze-zan said, 'Then they will always follow their 
chief;-- will they?'
        6. The Master said, 'In an act of parricide or regicide, they 
would not follow him.'
        CHAP. XXIV. 1. Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor 
of Pi.
        2. The Master said, 'You are injuring a man's son.'
        3. Tsze-lu said, 'There are (there) common people and 
officers; there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. 
Why must one read books before he can be considered to have 
        4. The Master said, 'It is on this account that I hate your 
glib-tongued people.'
        CHAP. XXV. 1. Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kung-hsi 
Hwa were sitting by the Master.
        2. He said to them, 'Though I am a day or so older than 
you, do not think of that.

        3. 'From day to day you are saying, "We are not known." 
If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?'
        4. Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, 'Suppose the case of 
a State of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between 
other large States; let it be suffering from invading armies; and 
to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all 
vegetables:-- if I were intrusted with the government of it, in 
three years' time I could make the people to be bold, and to 
recognise the rules of righteous conduct.' The Master smiled at 
        5. Turning to Yen Yu, he said, 'Ch'iu, what are your 
wishes?' Ch'iu replied, 'Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li 
square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government 
of it;-- in three years' time, I could make plenty to abound 
among the people. As to teaching them the principles of 
propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man 
to do that.'

        6. 'What are your wishes, Ch'ih,' said the Master next to 
Kung-hsi Hwa. Ch'ih replied, 'I do not say that my ability 
extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the 
services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the 
princes with the sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark 
square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small 
        7. Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, 'Tien, what are 
your wishes?' Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while 
it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and rose. 'My 
wishes,' he said, 'are different from the cherished purposes of 
these three gentlemen.' 'What harm is there in that?' said the 
Master; 'do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes.' 
Tien then said, 'In this, the last month of spring, with the dress 
of the season all complete, along with five or six young men 
who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would 
wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and 
return home singing.' The Master heaved a sigh and said, 'I 
give my approval to Tien.'

        8. The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained 
behind, and said, 'What do you think of the words of these 
three friends?' The Master replied, 'They simply told each one 
his wishes.'
        9. Hsi pursued, 'Master, why did you smile at Yu?'
        10. He was answered, 'The management of a State 
demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; 
therefore I smiled at him.'
        11. Hsi again said, 'But was it not a State which Ch'iu 
proposed for himself?' The reply was, 'Yes; did you ever see a 
territory of sixty or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which 
was not a State?'
        12. Once more, Hsi inquired, 'And was it not a State which 
Ch'ih proposed for himself?' The Master again replied, 'Yes; who 
but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with 
audiences but the sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small 
assistant in these services, who could be a great one?


        CHAP. I. 1. Yen Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The 
Master said, 'To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is 
perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and 
return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue 
to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or 
is it from others?'
        2. Yen Yuan said, 'I beg to ask the steps of that process.' 
The Master replied, 'Look not at what is contrary to propriety; 
listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is 
contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to 
propriety.' Yen Yuan then said, 'Though I am deficient in 
intelligence and vigour, I will make it my business to practise 
this lesson.'

        CHAP. II. Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The 
Master said, 'It is, when you go abroad, to behave to every one 
as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as 
if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as 
you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring 
against you in the country, and none in the family.' Chung-kung 
said, 'Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigour, I will 
make it my business to practise this lesson.'
        CHAP. III. 1. Sze-ma Niu asked about perfect virtue.
        2. The Master said, 'The man of perfect virtue is cautious 
and slow in his speech.'

        3. 'Cautious and slow in his speech!' said Niu;-- 'is this 
what is meant by perfect virtue?' The Master said, 'When a 
man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious 
and slow in speaking?'
        CHAP. IV. 1. Sze-ma Niu asked about the superior man. 
The Master said, 'The superior man has neither anxiety nor 
        2. 'Being without anxiety or fear!' said Nui;-- 'does this 
constitute what we call the superior man?'
        3. The Master said, 'When internal examination discovers 
nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there 
to fear?'
        CHAP. V. 1. Sze-ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, 'Other men 
all have their brothers, I only have not.'
        2. Tsze-hsia said to him, 'There is the following saying 
which I have heard:--

        3. '"Death and life have their determined appointment; 
riches and honours depend upon Heaven."
        4. 'Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order 
his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and 
observant of propriety:-- then all within the four seas will be 
his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being 
distressed because he has no brothers?'
        CHAP. VI. Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. 
The Master said, 'He with whom neither slander that gradually 
soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in 
the flesh, are successful, may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, 
he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling 
statements, are successful, may be called farseeing.'

        CHAP. VII. 1. Tsze-kung asked about government. The 
Master said, 'The requisites of government are that there be 
sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the 
confidence of the people in their ruler.'
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'If it cannot be helped, and one of 
these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be 
foregone first?' 'The military equipment,' said the Master.
        3. Tsze-kung again asked, 'If it cannot be helped, and one 
of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them 
should be foregone?' The Master answered, 'Part with the food. 
From of old, death has been the lot of all men; but if the people 
have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state.'
        CHAP. VIII. 1. Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, 'In a superior man it 
is only the substantial qualities which are wanted;-- why 
should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?'

虎豹之(kuo4, 革+享、與鞹同)、猶犬羊之(kuo4, 革+享、與鞹同)。
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a 
superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue.
        3. Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. 
The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the 
hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair.'
        CHAP. IX. 1. The Duke Ai inquired of Yu Zo, saying, 'The 
year is one of scarcity, and the returns for expenditure are not 
sufficient;-- what is to be done?'
        2. Yu Zo replied to him, 'Why not simply tithe the 
        3. 'With two tenths, said the duke, 'I find it not enough;-- 
how could I do with that system of one tenth?'
        4. Yu Zo answered, 'If the people have plenty, their prince 
will not be left to want alone. If the people are in want, their 
prince cannot enjoy plenty alone.'

        CHAP. X. 1. Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to 
be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, 
'Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be 
moving continually to what is right;-- this is the way to exalt 
one's virtue.
        2. 'You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and 
wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him 
to die. This is a case of delusion.
        3. '"It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you 
come to make a difference."'
        CHAP. XI. 1. The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, asked Confucius 
about government.
        2. Confucius replied, 'There is government, when the 
prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father 
is father, and the son is son.'
        3. 'Good!' said the duke; 'if, indeed; the prince be not 
prince, the minister not minister, the father not father, and the 
son not son, although I have my revenue, can I enjoy it?'

        CHAP. XII. 1. The Master said, 'Ah! it is Yu, who could 
with half a word settle litigations!'
        2. Tsze-lu never slept over a promise.
        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'In hearing litigations, I am 
like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause 
the people to have no litigations.'
        CHAP. XIV. Tsze-chang asked about government. The 
Master said, 'The art of governing is to keep its affairs before 
the mind without weariness, and to practise them with 
undeviating consistency.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'By extensively studying all 
learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules 
of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right.'

        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The superior man seeks to 
perfect the admirable qualities of men, and does not seek to 
perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the opposite of 
        CHAP. XVII. Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government. 
Confucius replied, 'To govern means to rectify. If you lead on 
the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?'
        CHAP. XVIII. Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of 
thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius how to do away with 
them. Confucius said, 'If you, sir, were not covetous, although 
you should reward them to do it, they would not steal.'
        CHAP. XIX. Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government, 
saying, 'What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the 
good of the principled?' Confucius replied, 'Sir, in carrying on 
your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your 
evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be 
good. The relation

between superiors and inferiors, is like that between the wind 
and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows 
across it.'
        CHAP. XX. 1. Tsze-chang asked, 'What must the officer be, 
who may be said to be distinguished?'
        2. The Master said, 'What is it you call being 
        3. Tsze-chang replied, 'It is to be heard of through the 
State, to be heard of throughout his clan.'
        4. The Master said, 'That is notoriety, not distinction.
        5. 'Now the man of distinction is solid and 
straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's 
words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble 
himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the 
country; he will be distinguished in his clan.
        6. 'As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance 

virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this 
character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be 
heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the clan.'
        CHAP. XXI. 1. Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under 
the trees about the rain altars, said, 'I venture to ask how to 
exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover 
        2. The Master said, 'Truly a good question!
        3. 'If doing what is to be done be made the first business, 
and success a secondary consideration;-- is not this the way to 
exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that 
of others;-- is not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a 
morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involve that of 
his parents;-- is not this a case of delusion?'
        CHAP. XXII. 1. Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The 
Master said, 'It is to love all men.' He asked about knowledge. 
The Master said, 'It is to know all men.'

        2. Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these 
        3. The Master said, 'Employ the upright and put aside all 
the crooked;-- in this way the crooked can be made to be 
        4. Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, 
'A Little while ago, I had an interview with our Master, and 
asked him about knowledge. He said, 'Employ the upright, and 
put aside all the crooked;-- in this way, the crooked will be 
made to be upright.' What did he mean?'
        5. Tsze-hsia said, 'Truly rich is his saying!
        6. 'Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected 
from among all the people, and employed Kao-yao, on which all 
who were devoid of virtue disappeared. T'ang, being in 
possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, 
and employed I Yin, and all who were devoid of virtue 
        CHAP. XXIII. Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The 
Master said, 'Faithfully admonish your friend, and skillfully 
lead him on. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not 
disgrace yourself.'

        CHAP. XXIV. The philosopher Tsang said, 'The superior 
man on grounds of culture meets with his friends, and by their 
friendship helps his virtue.'


        CHAP. I. 1. Tsze-lu asked about government. The Master 
said, 'Go before the people with your example, and be laborious 
in their affairs.'
        2. He requested further instruction, and was answered, 
'Be not weary (in these things).'
        CHAP. II. 1. Chung-kung, being chief minister to the Head 
of the Chi family, asked about government. The Master said, 

first the services of your various officers, pardon small faults, 
and raise to office men of virtue and talents.'
        2. Chung-kung said, 'How shall I know the men of virtue 
and talent, so that I may raise them to office?' He was 
answered, 'Raise to office those whom you know. As to those 
whom you do not know, will others neglect them?'
        CHAP. III. 1. Tsze-lu said, 'The ruler of Wei has been 
waiting for you, in order with you to administer the 
government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?'
        2. The Master replied, 'What is necessary is to rectify 
        3. 'So, indeed!' said Tsze-lu. 'You are wide of the mark! 
Why must there be such rectification?'
        4. The Master said, 'How uncultivated you are, Yu! A 
superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a 
cautious reserve.
        5. 'If names be not correct, language is not in accordance 

the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the 
truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.
        6. 'When affairs cannot be carried on to success, 
proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and 
music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly 
awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the 
people do not know how to move hand or foot.
        7. 'Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that 
the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that 
what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the 
superior man requires, is just that in his words there may be 
nothing incorrect.'
        CHAP. IV. 1. Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. 
The Master said, 'I am not so good for that as an old 
husbandman.' He

requested also to be taught gardening, and was answered, 'I am 
not so good for that as an old gardener.'
        2. Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, 'A small 
man, indeed, is Fan Hsu!
        3. If a superior love propriety, the people will not dare 
not to be reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not 
dare not to submit to his example. If he love good faith, the 
people will not dare not to be sincere. Now, when these things 
obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearing 
their children on their backs;-- what need has he of a 
knowledge of husbandry?'
        CHAP. V. The Master said, 'Though a man may be able to 
recite the three hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted with a 
governmental charge, he knows not how to act, or if, when sent 
to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies 
unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what 
practical use is it?'

        CHAP. VI. The Master said, 'When a prince's personal 
conduct is correct, his government is effective without the 
issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may 
issue orders, but they will not be followed.'
        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'The governments of Lu and 
Wei are brothers.'
        CHAP. VIII. The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal 
family of Wei, that he knew the economy of a family well. 
When he began to have means, he said, 'Ha! here is a 
collection!' When they were a little increased, he said, 'Ha! this 
is complete!' When he had become rich, he said, 'Ha! this is 
        CHAP. IX. 1. When the Master went to Wei, Zan Yu acted 
as driver of his carriage.
        2. The Master observed, 'How numerous are the people!'
        3. Yu said, 'Since they are thus numerous, what more 
shall be done for them?' 'Enrich them,' was the reply.

【第十章】子曰、苟有用我者、(上其下月, ji1)月而已可也、三年有成。
        4. 'And when they have been enriched, what more shall 
be done?' The Master said, 'Teach them.'
        CHAP. X. The Master said, 'If there were (any of the 
princes) who would employ me, in the course of twelve 
months, I should have done something considerable. In three 
years, the government would be perfected.'
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, '"If good men were to govern a 
country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able 
to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital 
punishments." True indeed is this saying!'
        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'If a truly royal ruler were to 
arise, it would still require a generation, and then virtue would 

        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'If a minister make his own 
conduct correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in 
government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do 
with rectifying others?'
        CHAP. XIV. The disciple Zan returning from the court, the 
Master said to him, 'How are you so late?' He replied, 'We had 
government business.' The Master said, 'It must have been 
family affairs. If there had been government business, though I 
am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it.'
        CHAP. XV. 1. The Duke Ting asked whether there was a 
single sentence which could make a country prosperous. 
Confucius replied, 'Such an effect cannot be expected from one 

        2. 'There is a saying, however, which people have-- "To 
be a prince is difficult; to be a minister is not easy."
        3. 'If a ruler knows this,-- the difficulty of being a 
prince,-- may there not be expected from this one sentence the 
prosperity of his country?'
        4. The duke then said, 'Is there a single sentence which 
can ruin a country?' Confucius replied, 'Such an effect as that 
cannot be expected from one sentence. There is, however, the 
saying which people have-- "I have no pleasure in being a 
prince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what 
I say!"
        5. 'If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no 
one oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes 
them, may there not be expected from this one sentence the 
ruin of his country?'
        CHAP. XVI. 1. The Duke of Sheh asked about government.
        2. The Master said, 'Good government obtains, when those 
who are near are made happy, and those who are far off are 

        CHAP. XVII. Tsze-hsia, being governor of Chu-fu, asked 
about government. The Master said, 'Do not be desirous to have 
things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to 
have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. 
Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being 
        CHAP. XVIII. 1. The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, 
saying, 'Among us here there are those who may be styled 
upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep, 
they will bear witness to the fact.'
        2. Confucius said, 'Among us, in our part of the country, 
those who are upright are different from this. The father 
conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the 
misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this.'

        CHAP. XIX. Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The 
Master said, 'It is, in retirement, to be sedately grave; in the 
management of business, to be reverently attentive; in 
intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go 
among rude, uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be 
        CHAP. XX. 1. Tsze-kung asked, saying, 'What qualities 
must a man possess to entitle him to be called an officer? The 
Master said, 'He who in his conduct of himself maintains a 
sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace 
his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer.'
        3. Tsze-kung pursued, 'I venture to ask who may be 
placed in the next lower rank?' And he was told, 'He whom the 
circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow-
villagers and neighbours pronounce to be fraternal.'
        3. Again the disciple asked, 'I venture to ask about the 
class still next in order.' The Master said, 'They are determined 
to be sincere in what they say, and to carry out what they do. 
They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they may make the 
next class.'

        4. Tsze-kung finally inquired, 'Of what sort are those of 
the present day, who engage in government?' The Master said 
'Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers, not worth being 
taken into account.'
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'Since I cannot get men 
pursuing the due medium, to whom I might communicate my 
instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. 
The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-
decided will keep themselves from what is wrong.'
        CHAP. XXII. 1. The Master said, 'The people of the south 
have a saying-- "A man without constancy cannot be either a 
wizard or a doctor." Good!
        2. 'Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with 

        3. The Master said, 'This arises simply from not attending 
to the prognostication.'
        CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'The superior man is 
affable, but not adulatory; the mean man is adulatory, but not 
        CHAP. XXIV. Tsze-kung asked, saying, 'What do you say 
of a man who is loved by all the people of his neighborhood?' 
The Master replied, 'We may not for that accord our approval 
of him.' 'And what do you say of him who is hated by all the 
people of his neighborhood?' The Master said, 'We may not for 
that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these 
cases that the good in the neighborhood love him, and the bad 
hate him.'
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'The superior man is easy to 
serve and difficult to please. If you try to please him in any 
way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. 
But in his

employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. 
The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you 
try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant 
with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, 
he wishes them to be equal to everything.'
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'The superior man has a 
dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without 
a dignified ease.'
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'The firm, the enduring, 
the simple, and the modest are near to virtue.'
        CHAP. XXVIII. Tsze-lu asked, saying, 'What qualities must 
a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?' The Master 
said, 'He must be thus,-- earnest, urgent, and bland:-- among 
his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland.'

        CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'Let a good man teach the 
people seven years, and they may then likewise be employed 
in war.'
        CHAP. XXX. The Master said, 'To lead an uninstructed 
people to war, is to throw them away.'


        CHAP. I. Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master 
said, 'When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking 
only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be 
thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-- this is shameful.'

        CHAP. II. 1. 'When the love of superiority, boasting, 
resentments, and covetousness are repressed, this may be 
deemed perfect virtue.'
        2. The Master said, 'This may be regarded as the 
achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to 
be deemed perfect virtue.'
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'The scholar who cherishes 
the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar.'
        CHAP. IV. The Master said, 'When good government 
prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions 
the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be 
lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve.'
        CHAP. V. The Master said, 'The virtuous will be sure to 
speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not 
always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but 
those who are bold may not always be men of principle.'

        CHAP. VI. Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to 
Confucius, said, 'I was skillful at archery, and Ao could move a 
boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural 
death. Yu and Chi personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, 
and they became possessors of the kingdom.' The Master made 
no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, 'A 
superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is 
        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'Superior men, and yet not 
always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has 
been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous.'

        CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'Can there be love which 
does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty 
which does not lead to the instruction of its object?'
        CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'In preparing the 
governmental notifications, P'i Shan first made the rough 
draught; Shi-shu examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu, 
the manager of Foreign intercourse, then polished the style; 
and, finally, Tsze-ch'an of Tung-li gave it the proper elegance 
and finish.'
        CHAP. X. 1. Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master 
said, 'He was a kind man.'
        2. He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, 'That man! 
That man!'
        3. He asked about Kwan Chung. 'For him,' said the Master, 
'the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from 
the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring 
word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to 

        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'To be poor without 
murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy.'
        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'Mang Kung-ch'o is more than 
fit to be chief officer in the families of Chao and Wei, but he is 
not fit to be great officer to either of the States Tang or Hsieh.'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. Tsze-lu asked what constituted a 
COMPLETE man. The Master said, 'Suppose a man with the 
knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the freedom from covetousness 
of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied 
talents of Zan Ch'iu; add to these the accomplishments of the 
rules of propriety and music:-- such a one might be reckoned a 
        2. He then added, 'But what is the necessity for a 
complete man of the present day to have all these things? The 
man, who in the

view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of 
danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget 
an old agreement however far back it extends:-- such a man 
may be reckoned a COMPLETE man.'
        CHAP. XIV. 1. The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about 
Kung-shu Wan, saying, 'Is it true that your master speaks not, 
laughs not, and takes not?'
        2. Kung-ming Chia replied, 'This has arisen from the 
reporters going beyond the truth.-- My master speaks when it 
is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his 
speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so 
men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is 
consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get 
tired of his taking.' The Master said, 'So! But is it so with him?'

        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Tsang Wu-chung, keeping 
possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Lu to appoint a 
successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he 
was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was.'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The duke Wan of Tsin was 
crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Ch'i was upright and 
not crafty.'
        CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-lu said, 'The Duke Hwan caused his 
brother Chiu to be killed, when Shao Hu died with his master, 
but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting 
in virtue?'

        2. The Master said, 'The Duke Hwan assembled all the 
princes together, and that not with weapons of war and 
chariots:-- it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. 
Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like 
        CHAP. XVIII. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'Kwan Chung, I 
apprehend, was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Hwan 
caused his brother Chiu to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able 
to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan.'
        2. The Master said, 'Kwan Chung acted as prime minister 
to the Duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and 
united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present 
day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for 
Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and 
the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.
        3. 'Will you require from him the small fidelity of 

men and common women, who would commit suicide in a 
stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?'
        CHAP. XIX. 1. The great officer, Hsien, who had been 
family-minister to Kung-shu Wan, ascended to the prince's 
court in company with Wan.
        2. The Master, having heard of it, said, 'He deserved to be 
considered WAN (the accomplished).'
        CHAP. XX. 1. The Master was speaking about the 
unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Ch'i K'ang 
said, 'Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose 
his State?'
        2. Confucius said, 'The Chung-shu Yu has the 
superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, 
has the management

of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chia has the direction of 
the army and forces:-- with such officers as these, how should 
he lose his State?'
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'He who speaks without 
modesty will find it difficult to make his words good.'
        CHAP. XXII. 1. Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of 
        2. Confucius bathed, went to court, and informed the 
duke Ai, saying, 'Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that 
you will undertake to punish him.'
        3. The duke said, 'Inform the chiefs of the three families 
of it.'
        4. Confucius retired, and said, 'Following in the rear of the 
great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, 
and my prince says, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of 

        5. He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they 
would not act. Confucius then said, 'Following in the rear of the 
great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter.'
        CHAP. XXIII. Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. 
The Master said, 'Do not impose on him, and, moreover, 
withstand him to his face.'
        CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'The progress of the 
superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is 
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'In ancient times, men 
learned with a view to their own improvement. Now-a-days, 
men learn with a view to the approbation of others.'
        CHAP. XXVI. 1. Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly 
inquiries to Confucius.
        2. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. 'What,' 
said he, 'is your master engaged in?' The messenger replied, 
'My master is

anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded.' 
He then went out, and the Master said, 'A messenger indeed! A 
messenger indeed!'
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'He who is not in any 
particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the 
administration of its duties.'
        CHAP. XXVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'The superior 
man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place.'
        CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'The superior man is modest 
in his speech, but exceeds in his actions.'
        CHAP. XXX. 1. The Master said, 'The way of the superior 
man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free 
from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is 
free from fear.
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'Master, that is what you yourself say.'

        CHAP. XXXI. Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing 
men together. The Master said, 'Tsze must have reached a high 
pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this.'
        CHAP. XXXII. The Master said, 'I will not be concerned at 
men's not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of 
        CHAP. XXXIII. The Master said, 'He who does not 
anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his 
not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily 
(when they occur);-- is he not a man of superior worth?'
        CHAP. XXXIV. 1. Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, 'Ch'iu, 
how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an 
insinuating talker?'
        2. Confucius said, 'I do not dare to play the part of such a 
talker, but I hate obstinacy.'

        CHAP. XXXV. The Master said, 'A horse is called a ch'i, not 
because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities.'
        CHAP. XXXVI. 1. Some one said, 'What do you say 
concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed 
with kindness?'
        2. The Master said, 'With what then will you recompense 
        3. 'Recompense injury with justice, and recompense 
kindness with kindness.'
        CHAP. XXXVII. 1. The Master said, 'Alas! there is no one 
that knows me.'
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'What do you mean by thus saying-- 
that no one knows you?' The Master replied, 'I do not murmur 

Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and 
my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-- that knows 
        CHAP. XXXVIII. 1. The Kung-po Liao, having slandered 
Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu Ching-po informed Confucius of it, 
saying, 'Our master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po 
Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and 
expose his corpse in the market and in the court.'
        2. The Master said, 'If my principles are to advance, it is 
so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. 
What can the Kung-po Liao do where such ordering is 

        CHAP. XXXIX. 1. The Master said, 'Some men of worth 
retire from the world.
        2. Some retire from particular states.
        3. Some retire because of disrespectful looks.
        4. Some retire because of contradictory language.'
        CHAP. XL.  The Master said, 'Those who have done this 
are seven men.'
        CHAP. XLI. Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-
man, the gatekeeper said to him, 'Whom do you come from?' 
Tsze-lu said, 'From Mr. K'ung.' 'It is he,-- is it not?'-- said the 
other, 'who knows the impracticable nature of the times and 
yet will be doing in them.'
        CHAP. XLII. 1. The Master was playing, one day, on a 
musical stone in Wei, when a man, carrying a straw basket, 
passed the door

of the house where Confucius was, and said, 'His heart is full 
who so beats the musical stone.'
        2. A little while after, he added, 'How contemptible is the 
one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken 
no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for 
public employment. "Deep water must be crossed with the 
clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held 
        3. The Master said, 'How determined is he in his purpose! 
But this is not difficult!'
        CHAP. XLIII. 1. Tsze-chang said, 'What is meant when the 
Shu says that Kao-tsung, while observing the usual imperial 
mourning, was for three years without speaking?'
        2. The Master said, 'Why must Kao-tsung be referred to 
as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the 
sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, 
taking instructions from the prime minister for three years.'

        CHAP. XLIV. The Master said, 'When rulers love to 
observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to 
the calls on them for service.'
        CHAP. XLV. Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior 
man. The Master said, 'The cultivation of himself in reverential 
carefulness.' 'And is this all?' said Tsze-lu. 'He cultivates 
himself so as to give rest to others,' was the reply. 'And is this 
all?' again asked Tsze-lu. The Master said, 'He cultivates 
himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself 
so as to give rest to all the people:-- even Yao and Shun were 
still solicitous about this.'
        CHAP. XLVI. Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and

so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, 'In 
youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing 
worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-- this is 
to be a pest.' With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.
        CHAP. XLVI. 1. A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was 
employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and 
his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, 'I suppose he 
has made great progress.'
        2. The Master said, 'I observe that he is fond of occupying 
the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder 
to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to 
make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man.'


        CHAP. I. 1. The Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about 
tactics. Confucius replied, 'I have heard all about sacrificial 
vessels, but I have not learned military matters.' On this, he 
took his departure the next day.
        2. When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, 
and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise.
        3. Tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, 'Has the 
superior man likewise to endure in this way?' The Master said, 
'The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the 
mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license.'

        CHAP. II. 1. The Master said, 'Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, 
that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in 
        2. Tsze-kung replied, 'Yes,-- but perhaps it is not so?'
        3. 'No,' was the answer; 'I seek a unity all-pervading.'
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'Yu, those who know virtue 
are few.'
        CHAP. IV. The Master said, 'May not Shun be instanced as 
having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? 
He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal 
        CHAP. V. 1. Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct 
himself, so as to be everywhere appreciated.
        2. The Master said, 'Let his words be sincere and truthful, 
and his actions honourable and careful;-- such conduct may be 
practised among the rude tribes of the South or the North. If 
his words be

not sincere and truthful and his actions not honourable and 
careful, will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his 
        3. 'When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it 
were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them 
attached to the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them 
into practice.'
        4. Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
        CHAP. VI. 1. The Master said, 'Truly straightforward was 
the historiographer Yu. When good government prevailed in his 
State, he was like an arrow. When bad government prevailed, 
he was like an arrow.
        2. A superior man indeed is Chu Po-yu! When good 
government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. 
When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, 
and keep them in his breast.'

        CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'When a man may be spoken 
with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. 
When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err 
in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to 
their man nor to their words.'
        CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'The determined scholar and 
the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of 
injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to 
preserve their virtue complete.'
        CHAP. IX. Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. 
The Master said, 'The mechanic, who wishes to do his work 
well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are living in any 
state, take service with the most worthy among its great 
officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its 
        CHAP. X. 1. Yen Yuan asked how the government of a 
country should be administered.
        2. The Master said, 'Follow the seasons of Hsia.

        3. 'Ride in the state carriage of Yin.
        4. 'Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau.
        5. 'Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes.
        6. Banish the songs of Chang, and keep far from specious 
talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; specious talkers are 
        CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'If a man take no thought 
about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand.'
        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'It is all over! I have not seen 
one who loves virtue as he loves beauty.'
        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Was not Tsang Wan like one 
who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the 

of Hui of Liu-hsia, and yet did not procure that he should stand 
with him in court.'
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'He who requires much from 
himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the 
object of resentment.'
        CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'When a man is not in the 
habit of saying-- "What shall I think of this? What shall I think 
of this?" I can indeed do nothing with him!'
        CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'When a number of people 
are together, for a whole day, without their conversation 
turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying 
out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-- theirs is indeed a 
hard case.'
        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'The superior man in 
everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs 
it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in 
humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a 
superior man.'

        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'The superior man is 
distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men's 
not knowing him.'
        CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'The superior man dislikes 
the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death.'
        CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'What the superior man seeks, 
is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others.'
        CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'The superior man is 
dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a 
        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'The superior man does not 
promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put 
aside good words because of the man.'

        CHAP. XXIII. Tsze-kung asked, saying, 'Is there one word 
which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?' The 
Master said, 'Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not 
want done to yourself, do not do to others.'
        CHAP. XXIV. 1. The Master said, 'In my dealings with 
men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, 
beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, 
there must be ground for it in my examination of the 
        2. 'This people supplied the ground why the three 
dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness.'
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Even in my early days, a 
historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who 
had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there 
are no such things.'

        CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'Specious words confound 
virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great 
        CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'When the multitude hate 
a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the 
multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case.'
        CHAP. XXVIII. The Master said, 'A man can enlarge the 
principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the 
        CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'To have faults and not to 
reform them,-- this, indeed, should be pronounced having 
        CHAP. XXX. The Master said, 'I have been the whole day

without eating, and the whole night without sleeping:-- 
occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to 
        CHAP. XXXI. The Master said, 'The object of the superior 
man is truth. Food is not his object. There is plowing;-- even in 
that there is sometimes want. So with learning;-- emolument 
may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should 
not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon 
        CHAP. XXXII. 1. The Master said, 'When a man's 
knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient 
to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will 
lose again.
        2. 'When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has 
virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the 
people will not respect him.
        3. 'When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has 
virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, 
yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of 
propriety:-- full excellence is not reached.'

        CHAP. XXXIII. The Master said, 'The superior man cannot 
be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great 
concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great 
concerns, but he may be known in little matters.'
        CHAP. XXXIV. The Master said, 'Virtue is more to man 
than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on 
water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading 
the course of virtue.'
        CHAP. XXXV. The Master said, 'Let every man consider 
virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the 
performance of it even to his teacher.'

        CHAP. XXXVI. The Master said, 'The superior man is 
correctly firm, and not firm merely.'
        CHAP. XXXVII. The Master said, 'A minister, in serving his 
prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his 
emolument a secondary consideration.'
        CHAP. XXXVIII. The Master said, 'In teaching there 
should be no distinction of classes.'
        CHAP. XXXIX. The Master said, 'Those whose courses are 
different cannot lay plans for one another.'
        CHAP. XL. The Master said, 'In language it is simply 
required that it convey the meaning.'
        CHAP. XLI. 1. The Music-master, Mien, having called upon 
him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, 'Here are 
the steps.' When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, 

said, 'Here is the mat.' When all were seated, the Master 
informed him, saying, 'So and so is here; so and so is here.'
        2. The Music-master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang 
asked, saying. 'Is it the rule to tell those things to the Music-
        3. The Master said, 'Yes. This is certainly the rule for 
those who lead the blind.'


        CHAP. I. 1. The head of the Chi family was going to attack 
        2. Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and 
said, 'Our chief, Chi, is going to commence operations against 

        3. Confucius said, 'Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault 
        4. 'Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king 
appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern 
Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our State; 
and its ruler is a minister in direct connexion with the 
sovereign:-- What has your chief to do with attacking it?'
        5. Zan Yu said, 'Our master wishes the thing; neither of us 
two ministers wishes it.'
        6. Confucius said, 'Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau 
Zan,-- "When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in 
the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he 
retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, 
who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up 
when fallen?"
        7. 'And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or 
rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of 
jade is injured in its repository:-- whose is the fault?'

        8. Zan Yu said, 'But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and 
near to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a 
sorrow to his descendants.'
        9. Confucius said. 'Ch'iu, the superior man hates that 
declining to say-- "I want such and such a thing," and framing 
explanations for the conduct.
        10. 'I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs of 
families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but 
are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that 
they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled 
with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in 
their several places. For when the people keep their several 
places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there 
will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a 
contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.
        11. 'So it is.-- Therefore, if remoter people are not 
submissive, all

the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to 
attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, 
they must be made contented and tranquil.
        12. 'Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. 
Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he 
cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are 
divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with 
your help, he cannot preserve it.
        13. 'And yet he is planning these hostile movements 
within the State.-- I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun 
family will not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found 
within the screen of their own court.'

        CHAP. II. 1. Confucius said, 'When good government 
prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive 
military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When 
bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and 
punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When 
these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will 
be few in which they do not lose their power in ten 
generations. When they proceed from the Great officers of the 
princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not 
lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary 
ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of 
the state, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not 
lose their power in three generations.
        2. 'When right principles prevail in the kingdom, 
government will not be in the hands of the Great officers.
        3. 'When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there 
will be no discussions among the common people.'

        CHAP. III. Confucius said, 'The revenue of the state has 
left the ducal House now for five generations. The government 
has been in the hands of the Great officers for four generations. 
On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much 
        CHAP. IV. Confucius said, 'There are three friendships 
which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. 
Friendship with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and 
friendship with the man of much observation:-- these are 
advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; 
friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the 
glib-tongued:-- these are injurious.'
        CHAP. V. Confucius said, 'There are three things men find 
enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they 
find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the 
discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find 
enjoyment in

speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having 
many worthy friends:-- these are advantageous. To find 
enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in 
idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of 
feasting:-- these are injurious.'
        CHAP. VI. Confucius said, 'There are three errors to which 
they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station 
are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to 
speak;-- this is called rashness. They may not speak when it 
comes to them to speak;-- this is called concealment. They may 
speak without looking at the countenance of their superior;-- 
this is called blindness.'
        CHAP. VII. Confucius said, 'There are three things which 
the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical 

are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong 
and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against 
quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are 
decayed, he guards against covetousness.'
        CHAP. VIII. 1. Confucius said, 'There are three things of 
which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the 
ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands 
in awe of the words of sages.
        2. 'The mean man does not know the ordinances of 
Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is 
disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of 
        CHAP. IX. Confucius said, 'Those who are born with the 
possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those 
who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the 

Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, 
are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and 
stupid and yet do not learn;-- they are the lowest of the 
        CHAP. X. Confucius said, 'The superior man has nine 
things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. 
In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In 
regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In 
regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be 
benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should 
be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it 
should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is 
anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what 
he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is 
angry, he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him 
in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness.'
        CHAP. XI. 1. Confucius said, 'Contemplating good, and 
pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil, 
and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand 
into boiling water:-- I have seen such men, as I have heard 
such words.
        2. 'Living in retirement to study their aims, and 

righteousness to carry out their principles:-- I have heard 
these words, but I have not seen such men.'
        CHAP. XII. 1. The duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand 
teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the 
people did not praise him for a single virtue. Po-i and Shu-ch'i 
died of hunger at the foot of the Shau-yang mountain, and the 
people, down to the present time, praise them.
        2. 'Is not that saying illustrated by this?'
        CHAP. XIII. 1. Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, 'Have you 
heard any lessons from your father different from what we 
have all heard?'
        2. Po-yu replied, 'No. He was standing alone once, when I 
passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, "Have 
you learned the Odes?" On my replying "Not yet," he added, "If 
you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with." 
I retired and studied the Odes.

        3. 'Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, 
when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to 
me, 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 
'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, 
your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and 
learned the rules of Propriety.
        4. 'I have heard only these two things from him.'
        5. Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, 'I asked 
one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the 
Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also 
heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve 
towards his son.'
        CHAP. XIV. The wife of the prince of a state is called by 
him FU ZAN. She calls herself HSIAO T'UNG. The people of the 
State call

her CHUN FU ZAN, and, to the people of other States, they call 
her K'WA HSIAO CHUN. The people of other states also call her 



        CHAP. I. 1. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but 
Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of 
a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho was not 
at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, 
however, on the way.
        2. Ho said to Confucius, 'Come, let me speak with you.' He 
then asked, 'Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in 

bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?' Confucius replied, 
'No.' 'Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in 
public employment, and yet is constantly losing the 
opportunity of being so?' Confucius again said, 'No.' 'The days 
and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us.' 
Confucius said, 'Right; I will go into office.'
        CHAP. II. The Master said, 'By nature, men are nearly 
alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.'
        CHAP. III. The Master said, 'There are only the wise of 
the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot 
be changed.'

        CHAP. IV. 1. The Master, having come to Wu-ch'ang, 
heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing.
        2. Well pleased and smiling, he said, 'Why use an ox knife 
to kill a fowl?'
        3. Tsze-yu replied, 'Formerly, Master, I heard you say,-- 
"When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; 
when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily 
        4. The Master said, 'My disciples, Yen's words are right. 
What I said was only in sport.'
        CHAP. V. Kung-shan Fu-zao, when he was holding Pi, and 
in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who 
was rather inclined to go.
        2. Tsze-lu was displeased, and said, 'Indeed, you cannot 
go! Why must you think of going to see Kung-shan?'

        3. The Master said, 'Can it be without some reason that he 
has invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an 
eastern Chau?'
        CHAP. VI. Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect 
virtue. Confucius said, 'To be able to practise five things 
everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue.' He 
begged to ask what they were, and was told, 'Gravity, 
generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you 
are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are 
generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose 
trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If 
you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of 

        CHAP. VII. 1. Pi Hsi inviting him to visit him, the Master 
was inclined to go.
        2. Tsze-lu said, 'Master, formerly I have heard you say, 
"When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a 
superior man will not associate with him." Pi Hsi is in rebellion, 
holding possession of Chung-mau; if you go to him, what shall 
be said?'
        3. The Master said, 'Yes, I did use these words. But is it 
not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground 
without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really 
white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made 
        4. 'Am I a bitter gourd! How can I be hung up out of the 
way of being eaten?'

        CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, 'Yu, have you heard the 
six words to which are attached six becloudings?' Yu replied, 'I 
have not.'
        2. 'Sit down, and I will tell them to you.
        3. 'There is the love of being benevolent without the love 
of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. 
There is the love of knowing without the love of learning;-- the 
beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love 
of being sincere without the love of learning;-- the beclouding 
here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is 
the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning;-- 
the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of 
boldness without the love of learning;-- the beclouding here 
leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without 
the love of learning;-- the beclouding here leads to extravagant 

        CHAP. IX. 1. The Master said, 'My children, why do you 
not study the Book of Poetry?
        2. 'The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.
        3. 'They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.
        4. 'They teach the art of sociability.
        5. 'They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.
        6. 'From them you learn the more immediate duty of 
serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's 
        7. 'From them we become largely acquainted with the 
names of birds, beasts, and plants.'
        CHAP. X. The Master said to Po-yu, 'Do you give yourself 
to the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan. The man who has not 
studied the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan, is like one who stands 
with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?'

        CHAP. XI. The Master said, '"It is according to the rules of 
propriety," they say.-- "It is according to the rules of 
propriety," they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by 
propriety? "It is music," they say.-- "It is music," they say. Are 
bells and drums all that is meant by music?'
        CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'He who puts on an 
appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like 
one of the small, mean people;-- yea, is he not like the thief 
who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?'
        CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Your good, careful people of 
the villages are the thieves of virtue.'
        CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'To tell, as we go along, what 
we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue.'

        CHAP. XV. 1. The Master said, 'There are those mean 
creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's 
        2. 'While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is 
how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest 
they should lose them.
        3. 'When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, 
there is nothing to which they will not proceed.'
        CHAP. XVI. 1. The Master said, 'Anciently, men had three 
failings, which now perhaps are not to be found.
        2. 'The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a 
disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present 
day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity 
showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present 
day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of 
antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of 
the present day shows itself in sheer deceit.'

        CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Fine words and an 
insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue.'
        CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'I hate the manner in 
which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. I hate the 
way in which the songs of Chang confound the music of the Ya. 
I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms 
and families.'
        CHAP. XIX. 1. The Master said, 'I would prefer not 
        2. Tsze-kung said, 'If you, Master, do not speak, what 
shall we, your disciples, have to record?'
        3. The Master said, 'Does Heaven speak? The four seasons 
pursue their courses, and all things are continually being 
produced, but does Heaven say anything?'

        CHAP. XX. Zu Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius 
declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the 
bearer of this message went out at the door, (the Master) took 
his lute and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear him.
        CHAP. XXI. 1. Tsai Wo asked about the three years' 
mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough.
        2. 'If the superior man,' said he, 'abstains for three years 
from the observances of propriety, those observances will be 
quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will 
be ruined.
        3. 'Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new 
grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go 
through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a 
complete year, the mourning may stop.'
        4. The Master said, 'If you were, after a year, to eat good 
rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?' 'I 
should,' replied Wo.

        5. The Master said, 'If you can feel at ease, do it. But a 
superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not 
enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure 
from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if 
he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you 
propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it.'
        6. Tsai Wo then went out, and the Master said, 'This 
shows Yu's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old 
that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three 
years' mourning is universally observed throughout the 
empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents?'

        CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Hard is it to deal with him, 
who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without 
applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters 
and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than 
doing nothing at all.'
        CHAP. XXIII. Tsze-lu said, 'Does the superior man esteem 
valour?' The Master said, 'The superior man holds 
righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior 
situation, having valour without righteousness, will be guilty of 
insubordination; one of the lower people having valour without 
righteousness, will commit robbery.'
        CHAP. XXIV. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'Has the superior man his 
hatreds also?' The Master said, 'He has his hatreds. He hates 
those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who,

being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those 
who have valour merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He 
hates those who are forward and determined, and, at the same 
time, of contracted understanding.'
        2. The Master then inquired, 'Ts'ze, have you also your 
hatreds?' Tsze-kung replied, 'I hate those who pry out matters, 
and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who 
are only not modest, and think that they are valourous. I hate 
those who make known secrets, and think that they are 
        CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Of all people, girls and 
servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar 
with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve 
towards them, they are discontented.'
        CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'When a man at forty is the 
object of dislike, he will always continue what he is.'


        CHAP. I. 1. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. 
The Viscount of Chi became a slave to Chau. Pi-kan 
remonstrated with him and died.
        2. Confucius said, 'The Yin dynasty possessed these three 
men of virtue.'
        CHAP. II. Hui of Liu-hsia being chief criminal judge, was 
thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, 'Is it not 
yet time for you, sir, to leave this?' He replied, 'Serving men in 
an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a 

dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what 
necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?'
        CHAP. III. The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the 
manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, 'I cannot treat 
him as I would the chief of the Chi family. I will treat him in a 
manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chi, and that 
given to the chief of the Mang family.' He also said, 'I am old; I 
cannot use his doctrines.' Confucius took his departure.
        CHAP. IV. The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of 
female musicians, which Chi Hwan received, and for three days 
no court was held. Confucius took his departure.
        CHAP. V. 1. The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by 
Confucius, singing and saying, 'O FANG! O FANG! How is your

virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the 
future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. 
Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage 
in affairs of government.'
        2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, 
but Chieh-yu hastened away, so that he could not talk with 
        CHAP. VI. 1. Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the 
field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-
lu to inquire for the ford.
        2. Ch'ang-tsu said, 'Who is he that holds the reins in the 
carriage there?' Tsze-lu told him, 'It is K'ung Ch'iu.' 'Is it not 
K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' asked he. 'Yes,' was the reply, to which the 
other rejoined, 'He knows the ford.'
        3. Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, 

are you, sir?' He answered, 'I am Chung Yu.' 'Are you not the 
disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' asked the other. 'I am,' replied 
he, and then Chieh-ni said to him, 'Disorder, like a swelling 
flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will 
change its state for you? Than follow one who merely 
withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better 
follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?' 
With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with 
his work, without stopping.
        4. Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the 
Master observed with a sigh, 'It is impossible to associate with 
birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I 
associate not with these people,-- with mankind,-- with whom 
shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the 
empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.'

        CHAP. VII. 1. Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to 
fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying across his 
shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to him, 
'Have you seen my master, sir!' The old man replied, 'Your four 
limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five 
kinds of grain:-- who is your master?' With this, he planted his 
staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.
        2. Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood 
before him.
        3. The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his 
house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also 
introduced to him his two sons.
        4. Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his 
adventure. The Master said, 'He is a recluse,' and sent Tsze-lu 
back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old 
man was gone.
        5. Tsze-lu then said to the family, 'Not to take office is not

righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be 
neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be 
observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to 
maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to 
come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs 
the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right 
principles to make progress, he is aware of that.'
        CHAP. VIII. 1. The men who have retired to privacy from 
the world have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i, Yu-chung, I-yi, Chu-chang, 
Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
        2. The Master said, 'Refusing to surrender their wills, or 
to submit to any taint in their persons;-- such, I think, were 
Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
        3. 'It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia, and of Shao-lien, that 
they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their 

but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions 
were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be 
remarked in them.
        4. 'It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they 
hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their 
words; but, in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their 
purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the 
exigency of the times.
        5. 'I am different from all these. I have no course for 
which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am 
        CHAP. IX. 1. The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
        2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went 
to Ch'u. Liao, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. 
Chueh, the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
        3. Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of 
the river.

入於河。播(tao2, 上兆下鼓)武、入於漢。【五節】少師陽、擊磬襄、入於
        4. Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the 
        5. Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of 
the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.
        CHAP. X. The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of 
Lu, saying, 'The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. 
He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not 
employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss 
from their offices the members of old families. He does not 
seek in one man talents for every employment.'
        CHAP. XI. To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, 
Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu, Shu-ya, Shu-hsia, Chi-sui, and 


        CHAP. I. Tsze-chang said, 'The scholar, trained for public 
duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. 
When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of 
righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In 
mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should 
feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed.'
        CHAP. II. Tsze-chang said, 'When a man holds fast to 
virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes right 
principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be 
made of his existence or non-existence?'

        CHAP. III. The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang 
about the principles that should characterize mutual 
intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, 'What does Tsze-hsia say on the 
subject?' They replied, 'Tsze-hsia says:-- "Associate with those 
who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot 
do so."' Tsze-chang observed, 'This is different from what I 
have learned. The superior man honours the talented and 
virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the 
incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?-- 
who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I 
devoid of talents and virtue?-- men will put me away from 
them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?'
        CHAP. IV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Even in inferior studies and 
employments there is something worth being looked at; but if 
it be

attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a 
danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior 
man does not practise them.'
        CHAP. V. Tsze-hsia said, 'He, who from day to day 
recognises what he has not yet, and from month to month does 
not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love 
to learn.'
        CHAP. VI. Tsze-hsia said, 'There are learning extensively, 
and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, 
and reflecting with self-application:-- virtue is in such a 
        CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mechanics have their shops to 
dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man 
learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles.'

        CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The mean man is sure to gloss 
his faults.'
        CHAP. IX. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man undergoes 
three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern; 
when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his 
language is firm and decided.'
        CHAP. X. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man, having 
obtained their confidence, may then impose labours on his 
people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think 
that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of 
his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not 
gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying 
        CHAP. XI. Tsze-hsia said, 'When a person does not 
transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass 
and repass it in the small virtues.'

        CHAP. XII. 1. Tsze-yu said, 'The disciples and followers of 
Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering 
and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently 
accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and 
they are left ignorant of what is essential.-- How can they be 
acknowledged as sufficiently taught?'
        2. Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, 'Alas! Yen Yu 
is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching, 
what departments are there which he considers of prime 
importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of 
secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But 
as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their 
classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a 
superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not 
the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the 
consummation of learning?'

        CHAP. XIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The officer, having discharged 
all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student, 
having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an 
        CHAP. XIV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mourning, having been carried 
to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that.'
        CHAP. XV. Tsze-hsia said, 'My friend Chang can do things 
which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous.'
        CHAP. XVI. The philosopher Tsang said, 'How imposing is 
the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practise 
        CHAP. XVII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I heard this 
from our Master:-- "Men may not have shown what is in them 
to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on 
occasion of mourning for their parents."'

        CHAP. XVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I have heard 
this from our Master:-- "The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in 
other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as 
seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his 
father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to."'
        CHAP. XIX. The chief of the Mang family having 
appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal judge, the latter 
consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, 'The rulers have 
failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been 
disorganised, for a long time. When you have found out the 
truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do 
not feel joy at your own ability.'
        CHAP. XX. Tsze-kung said, 'Chau's wickedness was not so 
great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates 
to dwell

in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will 
flow in upon him.'
        CHAP. XXI. Tsze-kung said, 'The faults of the superior 
man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his 
faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men 
look up to him.'
        CHAP. XXII. 1. Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tsze-kung, 
saying, 'From whom did Chung-ni get his learning?'
        2. Tsze-kung replied, 'The doctrines of Wan and Wu have 
not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men. 
Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of 
them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue, 
remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan 
and Wu. Where could our Master go that he should not have an 
opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was 
there for his having a regular master?'

        CHAP. XXIII. 1. Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great 
officers in the court, saying, 'Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ni.'
        2. Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-
kung, who said, 'Let me use the comparison of a house and its 
encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One 
may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the 
        3. 'The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one 
do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral 
temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.
        4. 'But I may assume that they are few who find the door. 
Was not the observation of the chief only what might have 
been expected?'

        CHAP. XXIV. Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of 
Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, 'It is of no use doing so. Chung-ni 
cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are 
hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is 
the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although 
a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm 
can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not 
know his own capacity.
        CHAP. XXV. 1. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, addressing Tsze-kung, 
said, 'You are too modest. How can Chung-ni be said to be 
superior to you?'
        2. Tsze-kung said to him, 'For one word a man is often 
deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be 
foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.
        3. 'Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way 
as the heavens cannot be gone up to by the steps of a stair.

        4. 'Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a State 
or the chief of a Family, we should find verified the description 
which has been given of a sage's rule:-- he would plant the 
people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead 
them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make 
them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his 
dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would 
be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he 
died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him 
to be attained to?'


        CHAP. I. 1. Yao said, 'Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-
determined order of succession now rests in your person. 
Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and 
want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a 
perpetual end.'
        2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to 
        3. T'ang said, 'I the child Li, presume to use a dark-
coloured victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most 
great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and 
thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The 
examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I 
commit offences, they are not to be attributed to you, the 
people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions 
commit offences, these offences must rest on my person.'

        4. Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
        5. 'Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal 
to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, 
the One man.'
        6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures, 
examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, 
and the good government of the kingdom took its course.
        7. He revived States that had been extinguished, restored 
families whose line of succession had been broken, and called 
to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that 
throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned 
towards him.
        8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of 
the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.
        9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made 
the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his 
achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

        CHAP. II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, 'In what 
way should a person in authority act in order that he may 
conduct government properly?' The Master replied, 'Let him 
honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, 
things;-- then may he conduct government properly.' Tsze-
chang said, 'What are meant by the five excellent things?' The 
Master said, 'When the person in authority is beneficent 
without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people 
without their repining; when he pursues what he desires 
without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease 
without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.'
        2. Tsze-chang said, 'What is meant by being beneficent 
without great expenditure?' The Master replied, 'When the 
person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the 
things from which

they naturally derive benefit;-- is not this being beneficent 
without great expenditure? When he chooses the labours which 
are proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine? 
When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he 
secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he 
has to do with many people or few, or with things great or 
small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-- is not this 
to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his 
clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, 
thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-- is not this to be 
majestic without being fierce?'
        3. Tsze-chang then asked, 'What are meant by the four 
bad things?' The Master said, 'To put the people to death 
without having instructed them;-- this is called cruelty. To 
require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without 
having given them warning;-- this is called oppression. To issue 
orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time 
comes, to insist on them with severity;-- this is called injury. 
And, generally, in the giving pay

or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;-- this is called 
acting the part of a mere official.'
        CHAP III. 1. The Master said, 'Without recognising the 
ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.
        2. 'Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it 
is impossible for the character to be established.
        3. 'Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to 
know men.'

End of this Project Gutenberg Etext of The Chinese Classics 
(Confucian Analects) by James Legge